Table of Contents
What is CBD oil?
Taboos you should break
Legality of CBD
What is CBD?
Cannabidiol was isolated from cannabis extracts by American chemist Roger Adams. However, no further investigation was carried out for almost 25 years, except for a few studies about its isolation. The exact chemical structure of CBD was elucidated only in 1963 by the group of Professor Raphael Mechoulam, from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem in Israel. Throughout the 1960s, the same group was responsible for the determination of the precise structure and stereochemistry of Δ9-THC and other major cannabinoids. These findings opened a new research field on the pharmacological activity of cannabis constituents. Before the 1970s, only a few pharmacological studies on CBD had been made, which concluded that CBD had no cannabis-like activity, as opposed to Δ9-THC (link).
brief history of cannabidiol
Cannabidiol can be drawn out from three sources:
synthesized in the lab
CBD is one of the 120 phytocannabinoids discovered in the cannabis species (Sativa and Indica). The cannabis plant has two key types, hemp (sativa) and marijuana (indica). Both have CBD, yet there’s a much higher percentage in hemp, which additionally has very reduced (less than 0.3%) degrees of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) compared to marijuana. That’s why CBD from hemp won’t get you ‘high’.
Cannabis Sativa L. plant, a breed of hemp, is designed to minimize THC and maximize CBD so that it consists of around 40% of the plant’s active substances.
For less complicated tracking of this article, have a look at this graphic and discover exactly how CBD oil is gotten.
CBD Oil vs. Hemp seed Oil difference
CBD oil makes use of the whole plant, while hemp oil originates from its seeds. Cannabis CBD extracts primarily come from the flowers and leaves of the marijuana plant. And from the flowers, leaves, and stalks of the hemp plant.
Hemp seed oil is not CBD oil
When individuals speak about hemp oil, they’re referring to oil removed from the seeds of the hemp plant. There are no cannabinoids, CBD, or THC, in hemp seed oil. Yet CBD oil is sometimes used to describe hemp seed oil, which consists of no active CBD. This component is loaded only with healthy fats and usually appears in beauty products for its hydrating benefits.
The hemp plant’s leaves and flowers are one resource of CBD oil
The term “hemp oil” frequently is made use of to refer to the CBD-rich product removed from the flowers and leaves of the hemp plant. Some full-spectrum CBD oral drops use hemp seed oil as a carrier oil, as it is considered to be one of the most beneficial oils available.
Endocannabinoid System relationship with CBD
Although cannabinoids were first found in the cannabis plant, they in fact exist in a whole host of various other biological systems, including our own.
When the endocannabinoid system is first discovered in 1992, it is found to be important to human health and well-being through maintaining homeostasis (balance) in various aspects of physiology. In essence, homeostasis regulates all major body systems, ensuring they all work alongside one another.
ECS affects everything from learning and memory, mood and anxiety, drug addiction, appetite, inflammation, perception, modulation of pain, and cardiovascular functions. ECS thus maintains balance in the nervous system and cannabinoids are an integral part of it.
It consists of:
Endogenous cannabinoids (endocannabinoids)
Enzymes (synthesize or degrade the endocannabinoids)
Research study on endocannabinoids (the cannabinoids our body produces inside) will be an essential part of the future development of CBD.
Mechanism of action
There are primarily two endocannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2) and CBD is active at both. While CB1 is found mostly in the brain and central nervous system, CB2 receptors are mainly expressed in immune cells in your body.
Although it cannot bind directly to the CB1 receptor…
CBD increases the activity of the native endocannabinoid system by increasing cannabinoid receptor density.
It also inhibits FAAH (fatty acid amide hydrolase), which increases levels of endocannabinoids like the anandamide molecule.
CBD is also an agonist of the 5-HT1a serotonin receptor.
CBD acts on CB2 receptors to produce anti-inflammatory responses in brain immune cells.
It is very likely these CBD activities provide well-known anti-anxiety and antidepressive effects.
Systemic effects that CBD exerts
Does CBD work on GABA?
How does CBD oil affect serotonin levels?
Does CBD affect dopamine?
CBD nootropics Benefits
“The brain is about a symphony, and CBD can bring the entire symphony into harmony.”
Yasmin Hurd, PhD, director of the Addiction Instit
CBD possesses a large range of wellness benefits. A lot of these benefits are related to cognitive efficiency. So, CBD is one of the superb natural nootropic compounds as well.
Brain fog affects overall mental performance, but it’s not a disease. It’s an outcome of various other conditions within the body. CBD nootropic activity has been revealed to aid numerous medical conditions like insomnia, depression, inflammation, and stress, all of which may cause brain fog.
CBD works for all those symptoms due to its relationship with the endocannabinoid system.
- CBD is an antioxidant
That reduces the problems associated with oxygen stress influenced by our environment, toxins, food, stress, and more. Memory loss and other brain deterioration indirectly lead to increased oxygen in the brain. CBD has the ability to reduce the toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) formed during ischemic metabolism (link).
- CBD can reduce inflammation
CBD may help reduce chronic inflammation and pain. Research has shown that it can reduce inflammation in the brain, as well as increase pain threshold, reduce pain intensity, and alter the perception of pain in adult participants (link1, link2).
- CBD can serve as a brain neuroprotective
The neuroprotective potential of CBD is based on the combination of its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. CBD may be able to positively affect the ECS and various brain signaling systems, hence it may help neurological disorders, such as epilepsy and multiple sclerosis (with oral spray Sativex®). In clinical trials, CBD has shown the ability to reverse and even prevent the development of Alzheimer’s negative impact on memory (link1, link2).
- CBD helps blood flow
CBD has long been used as a natural alternative to aid blood circulation thanks to its relaxing benefits. It aids to keep the brain healthy by bringing in nutrients and removing wastes (link).
- CBD helps support the brain-immune system
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is so important because it keeps our bodies in balance. ECS responds to CBD compounds in therapeutic ways: CB2 receptors interact with the CBD and normalize functions of other systems. CBD oil may help your body’s ability to reduce inflammation and fight infections (link). It may also have antibiotic benefits to aid recovery from bacterial infections (link). CBD also strengthens the microglial cells. Their job is to search and destroy various toxins like bacteria, viruses, fungus, and parasites from the brain (link).
- CBD strengthens brain cells
CBD works on the brain cells by stimulating them and maintaining their energy levels. Since the mitochondria are the power store for cells, CBD oil keeps them active throughout the day. CBD appears to stimulate synaptic plasticity and facilitates hippocampus neurogenesis. That may explain its positive effects on attenuating psychotic, anxiety, and depressive behaviors (link). The mechanisms underlying these effects involve multiple cellular targets to elevate brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels, reduce microglia activation, and decrease levels of pro-inflammatory mediators.
Does CBD help you focus?
CBD aids your focus by enabling extra serotonin to move in your brain similar to a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). This enhanced serotonin triggers less anxiety and resulted in more focus.
CBD has even been shown to help improve the symptoms relating to attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD). Those symptoms often include extreme lack of focus and concentration amongst other negative symptoms.
Novel CBD research
The researchers continue to prove that CBD is a powerful anti-epileptic, anti-depressant, anti-inflammatory, anti-nauseate, muscle relaxant, sleep aid, sedative, and anti-proliferative aid. As mentioned above, CBD has been shown to assist in several ways.
Probably the most notable effects, CBD exerts relate to anti-anxiety and antidepressant activity.
Does CBD Oil reduce anxiety?
In recent years, CBD has attracted increasing interest as a potential anxiolytic treatment. CBD has a broad pharmacological profile, including interactions with several receptors known to regulate fear and anxiety-related behaviors.
Several human studies with CBD have been conducted to show anti-anxiety effects are there because of the better regional cerebral blood flow (link).
The subjects in one study (2004) were given an oral dose of CBD (400 mg) and results suggested that CBD has anxiolytic properties mediated by an action on limbic and paralimbic brain areas.
Evidence from other human studies strongly supports the potential for CBD as a treatment for anxiety disorders at oral doses ranging from 300 to 600 mg (link).
Is CBD Oil an antidepressant?
When it comes to treating depression, CBD has shown a promising effect compared to antidepressants. In one recent animal study, the data support a promising therapeutic profile for CBD as a new fast-acting antidepressant drug. These effects may be related to the activation of the BDNF signaling pathway that creates rapid changes in synaptic plasticity. Raising levels of serotonin through inhibiting 5-HT1a serotonin receptor activity is also responsible for an improvement in mood.
CB1, CB2 neuroreceptors are likely responsible for improvements in mood.
CBD also impacts the TRPV1 receptor that is involved in pain and stress response.
GPR55, 5-HT1-alpha, and adenosine A2A receptors can variously help with inflammation, pain, anxiety, and even potentially cancer.
CBD likely inhibiting the breakdown of endocannabinoids like anandamide molecule.
It also increases adenosine levels by inhibiting the adenosine transporter. It may all contribute to a better mood and reduce depression (link).
If you are looking for a medication-free treatment for depression, you should probably check out Flow depression treatment.
Does CBD help with addiction?
Consuming cannabis with higher levels of CBD causes less brain disruption, according to a new study from University College London. The researchers claim that the famously calming cannabinoid can protect against the harsher effects of THC. One case report has shown positive outcomes for a patient treated with CBD during the withdrawal and relapse phase of cannabis dependence (link).
- Tobacco-related addictive behaviors
The results of the human study showed a significant reduction in the number of cigarettes smoked (≈40%) in the CBD inhaler group (400 μg/inhalation) during the week of treatment, with a trend indicating a reduction after follow-up (link).
- Heroin relapse
A recent double-blinded study published in the American Journal of Psychiatry, led by Yasmin Hurd, demonstrates the ability of CBD to reduce cravings in people with heroin drug addiction. The study involved 42 women and men with a history of heroin abuse attempting to abstain from relapse (link).
However, there is still limited evidence to support the use of CBD to treat drug addiction. The preclinical trials carried out are on animals, and there are only a few human studies. No human study was found for opioid, psychostimulant, hallucinogen, or sedative-addictive behaviors.
CBD in the treatment of epilepsy
The clinical use of CBD is the most advanced in the treatment of epilepsy. In the clinical experiments, CBD has proven to be an effective treatment for at least some forms of epilepsy, with one pure CBD product (Epidiolex®).
There are several studies in animals that demonstrated the anti-seizure activity of cannabidiol. Based on this research, cannabidiol was tested on patients with epilepsy. The Lennox-Gastaut and Dravet syndrome among others. A dose of CBD of 200-300 mg/day resulted in significant differences between the treatment and placebo groups.
A really inspiring story about a little girl with Dravet syndrome – a very rare syndrome of epilepsy – shows us how CBD and cannabis oil works. Giving her a new hybrid strain of cannabis with a high level of CBD has made immediate results. This strain worked so well on stopping this little girl’s debilitating seizures, that today its name bears the name Charlotte’s web in honor of her.
Does CBD improve sleep?
Does CBD reduce stress?
Can CBD help MS symptoms?
Can CBD reverse brain damage?
Different forms of CBD
Like the whole plant, full-spectrum CBD covers the full range of cannabinoids, terpenes, and flavonoids, but without the waxes, oils, and additional fibrous substances. This makes full-spectrum CBD smoother and easier to vape. Full-spectrum CBD usually causes more sedation in my experience than CBD isolate oil. This is due to additional cannabinoids, including very low levels of THC, CBN, and various terpenes that are present in the full-spectrum formulations other than CBD alone.
Broad-spectrum CBD means that it retains the additional cannabinoids, terpenes, and flavonoids in full-spectrum, whilst removing all traces of THC. That makes it the safest choice. Some people even react to the trace amount of THC, so this kind of product is for them. Also, broad-spectrum CBD doesn’t interfere with drug tests.
Ways to take CBD
There are several ways that you may try CBD. Each of these solutions has a specific effect to help you with various conditions.
When it comes to CBD, the oral bioavailability is much lower than it’s sublingual and vaporized forms. Vaping CBD seems to be the least effective form of CBD. CBD sprays are usually the weakest concentration compared to other forms of CBD.
Sublingual Tinctures, concentrates, soft gels, gems
Oral products such as our soft gels, tinctures, and gems have a systemic effect, meaning they work on your whole body. Many customers start with 25 mg soft gel capsules and slowly increase in 25 mg increments until finding their ideal dosage. Capsules are ideal for keeping track of your daily dosage. Also, you can just add the CBD capsules to your custom nootropic stack.
Tinctures are the most common form of CBD on the market. And likely the purest form of CBD. Dosages range from 100 to 1000 mg. By sublingual tinctures method, you consume CBD oil by placing it under your tongue and holding it there for up to a minute before ingesting. This approach has been proven to be very discreet and efficient in calming some chronic pain quickly. It is a convenient method that requires no extra accessories and has long-lasting effects. If you want to avoid oil tinctures that contain alcohol, look for the ones that are made of vegetable glycerin.
CBD concentrate is a high potency extract of the hemp plant that contains an incredibly high percentage of CBD. Concentrates are similar to herbal extracts in that they can contain up to 10-times the concentration of CBD compared to a tincture. Similar to tinctures concentrates of CBD work well sublingual or can be used to make edibles containing high doses of cannabidiol.
Some people even use CBD oil in cooking or add a few drops to their favorite smoothie, drink, and/or food recipe. Some pre-made products bring CBD into chewable gummy, bears, or lollipops, so you don’t even have to add them to your meal. You can also make your own CBD edibles if you don’t want to buy them in the pre-made stack solutions. Be careful, however, how much oil you use.
This method is basically applying the CBD through lip balms, lotions, salves, or as an ointment on the skin. It’s easier because it doesn’t require special tools. It can be effective in muscle pain, acne, sore throat, back pain, and migraines. You should read the label to find out what type of technology the product employs to deliver CBD through the dermal layers of your skin.
This is the most effective and fastest method as CBD enters the bloodstream through your lungs. Smoking and vaping are two methods of inhalation. Notice that these two methods are also the least healthy ways to take CBD. They pose significant health risks, which must be cautiously weighed against the limited substantiated therapeutic benefits of cannabis.
If you decide to try vaping CBD, experts advise ensuring you avoid vape juice or vape pens using propylene glycol as a carrier. It’s because of toxins that produce when propylene glycol is heated.
Instead, you may vaporize CBD concentrates, a process known as dabbing. It has been recently growing in popularity amongst cannabis and CBD enthusiasts. Dabbing is an extremely effective delivery system for administering high doses of CBD in a relatively short period of time.
CBD oil Concentration and Nootropic dosage
To find out how much CBD remains in your oil product, discover the complete CBD, or cannabinoid content as well as the volume of the bottle. For instance, your 25 ml tincture may have 500 mg CBD total amount. Next off, you will want to divide this total by the bottle quantity (500/25), which in our example results in 20 mg.
This means 1 ml of your CBD oil includes 20 mg of CBD. A lot of droppers have a volume of 1 ml when they are full and have an overall of 20 drops. This means we can divide our 20 mg by 20 – the number of drops. In our instance, one drop of oil has 1 mg of CBD.
It is difficult to give a precise CBD nootropic dosage because of several variables such as:
What you’re taking CBD for?
Your body weight
The form of CBD
How your body reacts to cannabidiol
As a general guideline, you ought, to begin with very low doses such as 5 mg and increase until you experience the wanted impacts.
For nootropic uses, the majority of people make use of 15-50 mg dosages of CBD in oil form.
CBD Side Effects - Very low toxicity in humans
Unlike the psychoactive properties associated with Δ9-THC, CBD has been shown to have very low toxicity in humans and in other species. Ingested and absorbed CBD is rapidly distributed and due to its lipophilic nature can easily pass the blood–brain barrier. The terminal half-life of CBD is about 9 h and is preferentially excreted in the urine as its free and glucuronide form. (link)
CBD has an excellent safety profile. Noted adverse side effects may only be as a result of CBD and other plant cannabinoids’ interaction with many pharmaceuticals.
To date, there is no evidence of recreational use of CBD or any public health-related problems connected with using pure CBD.
I also haven’t read that biohackers complained about any type of undesirable impacts of CBD oils they use. There is no deadly dose of CBD or THC. Generally is more efficient to take reduced than greater dosages if you are healthy and in shape.
Researches have been concluded that approximately 700 mg of CBD day-to-day doses fell short to cause any considerable change in neurological, psychiatric, or clinical tests.
The adverse effects are known to be caused by low-quality products from unreliable brands. You must always search for the COA certification because all earth-grown products soak up toxic substances like mercury and lead.
CBD is thought to have antipsychotic effects, and the greatest evidence for its antipsychotic ability is to block THC-induced psychosis.
Cannabidiol (CBD) shouldn’t show up on a drug test. However, many CBD products contain trace amounts of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), marijuana’s main active ingredient. If enough THC is present, it will show up on a drug test. This means that in rare cases, using CBD might lead to a positive drug test. For that matter, it is better to use broad-spectrum CBD products that remove all traces of THC, as well as additional cannabinoids.
Nootropic blend Recommends CBD
With all the supplements that have antioxidant and neuroprotective properties and improve learning or focus, choosing CBD would be a legitimate option. For those with anxiety, it’s a much better choice than choosing a racetam stack or other herbals. And, also, many people in pursuit of a good sleep aid are thrilled with CBD.